S = p/A
S is the characteristic velocity of vacuum near a star, the speed of space
p = NV/tau = momentum of free space near a star
N = number of protons and neutrons in a star
V is the volume of a proton, when r is .95fm
tau = 5.131534 nanoseconds = a Universal Constant
A = area of a sphere around a star
R = radius of a sphere around a white dwarf star or reactor cortex
p is the momentum of the vacuum. Momentum can be calculated as mass times velocity or by a second formula. The new guiding principle calculates the momentum of the vacuum to be volume divided by time. The volume of baryons (protons and neutrons) in a planet is V times N. The time tau is 5.1ns, The Universal Constant for the Conservation of Continuum. That tau has been confirmed on six planets and two stars.
When the characteristic Speed S equals the speed of light (c), the density is shown in this essay to be about 10^11 kilograms per cubic meter for a star with a radius like Earth. To begin, the Earth will be evaluated to calculate S, and then a pre-nova star will be used in a second calculation. Here are the main formulas for Table 1: Speed of Space, Density (rho) and Mass of a Nova:
Speed of Space = V rho R / (3 m tau)
Density of Nova = 3 m c tau / (V R)
Mass of Nova = m * (4 pi R^{2} c tau) / V
Earth Example Calculation
For the Earth, its low density causes S to be about 5 meters per second, as the next calculation shows:
S = p/A
p = NV/5.1ns = momentum of vacuum near Earth
p = (3.5692*10^51 baryons) * (3.591364*10^-45 meter^3) / (5.131534*10^-9 seconds)
A = area of Earth = 5.08*10^14 sq meters
So run the numbers, :
S = 4.91722 meters per second.
Nova
For a star, the high density causes S to be about c, as the next calculation shows:
S = p/A
Speed of space equals momentum divided by the area of the star
Here is the result
rho = density = 3 c tau m / RV
The table next shows how the density for Nova action varies with radius R. When S is c, a Nova is a candidate theory.Table 1 : Radius and Density for Nova
Radius R | Density rho | Notes | Mass | Comment |
10^{16} meters | 10^{2} kg per meter^{3} | one light year of pillow | 10^{51} | Low density nova |
10^{15} | 10^{3} | |||
10^{14} | 10^{4} | 10^{47} | Earth density 50x past Neptune | |
10^{13} | 10^{5} | 10^{45} kg | ||
10^{12} | 10^{6} | 10^{43} kg | ||
10^{11} | 10^{7} | Galaxy Mass | ||
10^{10} | 10^{8} | 10^{39} | ||
10^{9} | 10^{9} | |||
10^{8} | 10^{10} | 10^{35} | ||
10^{7} | 3.4*10^{11} | Earth Radius | 3.6*10^{32} kg | Nova Ref. 1 |
10^{6} | 10^{12} | 10^{31} | Sun Mass | |
10^{5} | 10^{13} | Vesta size | ||
10^{4} | 2.1*10^{14} | 10^{27} | Jupiter Mass | |
10^{3} | 10^{15} | |||
10^{2} | 10^{16} | pyramid size | 10^{23} | Earth Mass |
10^{1} | 10^{17} | 4.6 meter sphere dense as proton | 1.9*10^{20 kg} | rho=4.66*10^{17} kg/meter^{3} |
10^{0} | 10^{18} | 2x denser than proton | 10^{19} | |
10^{-1} | 10^{19} | 20x denser than proton | 10^{17} | 4 inch ball nova |
meters | kg/meter |
Notes | Kilograms | Comments |
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